|cookies| Wednesday.January.18.2017

since 6.4.1996

Information About Cookies On NNRacing.com
In order to use this site you must have a browser that both supports Cookies and has Cookies enabled. If your browser supports cookies, please go to Microsoft and download their most recent version of Internet Explorer. If you would like information about cookies, please see the brief FAQ below. If you would like more complete information about cookies please see Cookie Central. To enable cookies you must open up internet options in the tools menu, and then select security (for Internet Explorer 5+), or go to the Preferences option in the Edit toolbar, and then select advanced. All cookies received directly fom this site last only to until the conclusion of your visit (unless you select the save your information, and in that case only your username and encrypted password are saved on your computer).

What Cookies Are

A "cookie" is a mechanism developed by the Netscape Corporation to make up for the stateless nature of the HTTP protocol. Normally, each time a browser requests the URL of a page from a Web server the request is treated as a completely new interaction. The fact that the request may be just the most recent in a series of requests as the user browses methodically through the site is lost. Although this makes the Web more efficient, this stateless behavior makes it difficult to create things like shopping carts that must remember the user's actions over an extended period of time.

Cookies solve this problem. A cookie is a small piece of information, often no more than a short session identifier, that the HTTP server sends to the browser when the browser connects for the first time. Thereafter, the browser returns a copy of the cookie to the server each time it connects. Typically the server uses the cookie to remember the user and to maintain the illusion of a "session" that spans multiple pages. Because cookies are not part of the standard HTTP specification, only some browsers support them: currently Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 and higher, and Netscape Navigator 2.0 and higher. The server and/or its CGI scripts must also know about cookies in order to take advantage of them.

Cookies contain attributes that tell the browser what servers to send them to. The "domain" attribute tells the browser which host names the cookie should be returned to, and the "path" attribute indicates what URL paths within that domain are valid. For instance, a domain of "megacorp.com" and a path of "/users" tells the browser to return the cookie to hosts with names like "ftp.megacorp.com" and "www.megacorp.com", and to do so only when requesting URLs that start with the path "/users". An important security measure prevents the cookie's domain from being set to top-level domains like ".com". This prevents someone from creating a promiscuous cookie that will be returned to any server.

Cookies And Privacy

Cookies cannot be used to "steal" information about you or your computer system. They can only be used to store information that you have provided at some point. To give a benign example, if you fill out a form giving your favorite color, a server can turn this information into a cookie and send it to your browser. The next time you contact the site, your browser will return the cookie, allowing the server to alter background color of its pages to suit your preferences.

However cookies can be used for more controversial purposes. Each access your browser makes to a Web site leaves some information about you behind, creating a gossamer trail across the Internet. Among the tidbits of data left along this trail are the name and IP address of your computer, the brand of browser you're using, the operating system you're running, the URL of the Web page you accessed, and the URL of the page you were last viewing. Without cookies, it would be nearly impossible for anyone to follow this trail systematically to learn much about your Web browsing habits. They would have to reconstruct your path by correlating hundreds or thousands of individual server logs. With cookies, the situation changes considerably.

The DoubleClick Network is a system created by the DoubleClick Corporation to create profiles of individuals using the World Wide Web and to present them with advertising banners customized to their interests. DoubleClick's primary customers are Web sites looking to advertise their services. Each member of the DoubleClick Network becomes a host for the advertising of other members of the network. When a Web site joins DoubleClick it creates advertisements for its services and submits them to DoubleClick's server. The Web site then modifies its HTML pages to include an <IMG> graphic that points to DoubleClick. When a user goes to view one of these modified HTML pages, her browser makes a call to DoubleClick's server to retrieve the graphic. The server chooses one of its member's advertisements and returns it to the browser. If the user reloads the page, a different advertisement appears. If the user clicks on the graphic, her browser jumps to the advertised site. Currently many hundreds of sites belong to DoubleClick.

From the user's point of view DoubleClick's graphics appear no different from any other Web advertisement, and there's no visible indication of anything special about the graphic. However, there is an important difference. When a user first connects to the DoubleClick server to retrieve a graphic, the server assigns the browser a cookie that contains a unique identification number. From that time forward whenever the user connects to any Web site that subscribes to the DoubleClick Network, her browser returns the identification number to DoubleClick's server, allowing the server to recognize her. Over a period of time DoubleClick compiles a list of which member sites the user has visited and revisited, using this information to create a profile of the user's tastes and interests. With this profile in hand the DoubleClick server can select advertising that is likely to be of interest to the user. It can also use this information to compile valuable feedback for its member Web sites, such as providing them with audience profiles and rating the effectiveness of the advertisements.

Although names and e-mail addresses are not part of the information that DoubleClick records, other information that the browser leaves behind is sufficient, in many cases, to identify the user. For this reason many people are uncomfortable with DoubleClick's use of cookies. To find out whether you have been tracked by DoubleClick, examine your browser's cookies file. On Unix systems using Netscape, the cookies file can be found in your home directory in the file ~/.netscape/cookies. If a line like this appears:

ad.doubleclick.net FALSE / FALSE 942195440 IAA d2bbd5
then you are carrying a DoubleClick cookie.

Windows users will find the equivalent information in the file cookies.txt, located in their C:\Programs\Netscape\Navigator directory, while Macintosh users should look in their System Folder under Preferences:Netscape. Users of Microsoft Internet Explorer should examine the files located in C:\Windows\Cookies.

Current versions of both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer offer the option of alerting you whenever a server attempts to give your browser a cookie. If you turn this alert on, you will have the option of refusing cookies. You should also manually delete any cookies that you have already collected. The easiest way to do this is to remove the cookies file entirely.

The drawback to this scheme is that many servers will offer the same cookie repeatedly even after you refuse to accept the first one. This rapidly leads to a nuisance situation. Before you panic over cookies, it's worth remembering that the vast majority of cookies are benign attempts to improve your Web browsing experience, not intrusions on your privacy. Netscape Navigator 4.0 provides a new feature that allows you to refuse cookies that are issued from sites other than the main page you are viewing. This foils most DoubleClick schemes without interfering with the more benign cookies. To access this option, select Edit->Preferences->Advanced, and select the appropriate radio button from the cookies section.

Some people might want to allow transient cookies (ones active only during a browsing session) but forbid persistent ones (ones that store user identification information over an extended period). On Unix systems, you can do this easily by creating a symbolic link between the Unix "bit bucket" device, /dev/null and the cookies file. Users of other operating systems may have to invest in third party products that intercept cookies. A representative listing of such products follows:

NSClean, IEClean
Windows 95/NT programs that wipe the cookies file clean.

InterMute (Windows, Macintosh, Unix)
An anonymizing proxy that removes cookies, referer information, and other identifying information from your URL requests. Runs as a Java applet within the browser.

Internet Junkbuster Proxy (Unix)
An anonymizing proxy that removes cookies, referer information, and other identifying information from your URL requests.

Cookies And System Security

In addition to the privacy issues, cookies carry security implications as well. Many sites use cookies to implement access control schemes of various sorts. For example, a subscription site that requires a user name and password might pass a cookie back to your browser the first time you log in. Thereafter, the site will give you access to restricted pages if your browser can produce a valid cookie, basically using the cookie as an admission ticket. This can have several advantages for the site, not the least of which is that it can avoid the overhead of looking up your user name and password in a database each and every time you access a page.

However, unless this type of system is implemented carefully, it may be vulnerable to exploitation by unscrupulous third parties. For instance, an eavesdropper armed with a packet sniffer could simply intercept the cookie as it passes from your browser to the server, using it to obtain free access to the site. Because browsers use the domain name system (DNS) to determine what cookies belong to a server, it is possible to trick a browser into sending a cookie to a rogue server by temporarily subverting the DNS. If the cookie is persistent, of course, it is also vulnerable to being stolen from the user's cookie database file.

Now consider a transaction processing systems that uses cookies as session IDs to preserve state during the steps of a multi-part transaction. Examples of such systems include a system that allows authorized employees to update records in a corporate database, an on-line ordering system, or a bank transaction system. If care is not taken to protect the cookie from interception, it is possible for an interloper to hijack the transaction and use it to make unauthorized transactions.

Designers of systems that use cookies for authentication and state-preservation should be alert to the possibility of cookie interception. Cookies should aways contain as little private information as possible. In particular, it is never appropriate for cookies to contain plaintext user names and passwords. In ISP environments where many users share the same Web server, it is important to use as specific a path as possible in the cookie. For instance, if the program that processes cookies lives at URL http://bigISP.com/users/fred/order.cgi, then the developer should arrange for the cookie path to be set to /users/fred/order.cgi rather than a more general path like /.

If possible, cookies should contain information that allows the system to verify that the person using them is authorized to do so. A popular scheme is to include the following information in cookies:
  1. the session ID or authorization information
  2. the time and date the cookie was issued
  3. an expiration time
  4. the IP address of the browser the cookie was issued to
  5. a message authenticity check (MAC) code
By incorporating an expiration date and time into the cookie, system designers can limit the potential damage that a hijacked cookie can do. If the cookie is intercepted, it can only be used for a finite time before it becomes invalid. The idea of including the browser's IP address into the cookie is that the cookie will only be accepted if the stored IP address matches the IP address of the browser submitting it. This makes it difficult for an interloper to hijack the cookie, because it is hard (although not impossible) to spoof an IP address.

The MAC code is there to ensure that none of the fields of the cookie have been tampered with. There are many ways to compute a MAC, most of which rely on one-way hash algorithms such as MD5 or SHA to create a unique fingerprint for the data within the cookie. Here's a simple but relatively secure technique that uses MD5:
MAC = MD5("secret key " +
				           MD5("session ID" + "issue date" +
				               "expiration time" + "IP address" +
				               "secret key")
This algorithm first performs a string concatenation of all the data fields in the cookie, then adds to it a secret string known only to the Web server. The whole is then passed to the MD5 function to create a unique hash. This value is again concatenated with the secret key, and the whole thing is rehashed. (The second round of MD5 hashing is necessary in order to avoid an attack in which additional data is appended to the end of the cookie and a new hash recalculated by the attacker.)

This hash value is now incorporated into the cookie data. Later, when the cookie is returned to the server, the software should verify that the cookie hasn't expired and is being returned by the proper IP address. Then it should regenerate the MAC from the data fields, and compare that to the MAC in the cookie. If they match, there's little chance that the cookie has been tampered with.

Perl programmers can take advantage of the HMAC algorithm, a slightly more sophisticated technique that has been incorporated into a module by Gisle Aas. It is available at CPAN in the module MD5::Digest.

An alternative method is to encrypt the entire cookie with an encryption algorithm such as DES, IDEA or RC4. The cookie will be encrypted along with the rest of the data stream in such a way that network eavesdroppers cannot intercept the cookie without first cracking the encryption. To avoid the cookie being inadvertently disclosed across a non-secure channel, developers should set the "secure" attribute so that the browser only transmits the cookie when SSL is in effect.
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